Municipal Solid Waste Management – Latest News from Jammu and Kashmir | Tourism
Dr Vivak M Arya, Tamanna Sharma
Water and soil are considered the three most important factors for human life. Good water and soil quality is a necessity in life. Contamination of solid waste has affected the quality of both these factors in recent years. These problems tormented us from morning to night. Solid waste contributes to various forms of pollution, which disrupt our daily lives. In India, the growing problem of solid waste disposal is polluting our environment. Environmental pollution by solid waste also has an impact on human health and well-being. These pollutants are compounds naturally present in the environment but which become harmful when emitted in large quantities by humans. Due to rapid population increase, urbanization and industrialization, solid waste has become a global challenge at local, regional and national levels. In most developing countries, poor management of solid waste leads to difficulties that harm human and animal health, leading to economic, environmental and biological losses. The impact of waste is determined by its composition and illegal disposal procedures. Dumping of waste pollutes the environment and has short and long term health consequences including asthma, respiratory infections, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and even diseases of the brain, nerves, liver, lymph, hematopoiesis or kidneys. Solid waste management is a major concern in India’s high-density cities, as the generation of municipal solid waste per capita has increased significantly along with the improvement in the lifestyle and social status of the people. As more space is required for the final disposal of this solid waste, the disposal challenges have become extremely difficult. Waste has a negative influence on public health, the environment and the economy. According to the data. Jammu city generates 350-400 MT (metric tons) of solid waste every day at a rate of 0.45 kg/capita/day with contributions from household, institutional, commercial and street sweepings. The amount of dumped waste is increasing every day and the dumping area is getting so big that it threatens to cover our safe zone and cause a sewer problem. It has adverse effects on the quality of air, water and soil.
Effect on water quality: A water pollutant is a chemical or physical substance that is present in excessive quantities in water and that can harm living things. Copper, manganese, lead, cadmium, phosphate, nitrate and other chemical hazards exist. Groundwater must be free from physical and chemical hazards for public health reasons, but people living in and around the landfill site are at high risk of groundwater contamination. Another high-risk group are people who live near a landfill or whose water supply has been contaminated by dumping garbage or leaking landfills, increasing the risk of injury and infection. Household waste, in particular, provides ideal conditions for the survival and proliferation of microbial diseases. Uncollected solid waste can also impede stormwater runoff, resulting in stagnant bodies of water that can harbor diseases such as malaria, chest pain, diarrhea and cholera. The direct dumping of untreated waste into rivers, seas and lakes has led to harmful compounds accumulating up the food chain via the plants and animals that consume them. The Tawi River has become a dumping ground over the years, with mounds of hazardous waste polluting its water and ecology dumped on its banks. A municipal drain containing rubbish such as polythene bags and rubbish from the area of Pacci Dhakki, Jullaka Mohalla, Pir Meetha and Peerkho etc. pollutes the river daily.
According to JKPCB (Jammu Kashmir Pollution Control Board), the river’s biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reached 6.2 milligrams per liter in July and September 2020. Certain chemicals, such as cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are very toxic if released untreated, and exposure can result in illness or death.
Effect on Soil: Soil is a finite resource, which means that its depletion and loss cannot be reversed within a human lifetime. The food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, our health and the health of all organisms on earth are all influenced by soils. Healthy soils produce healthy food. In fact, our soils are believed to create 95% of our food, directly or indirectly. It affects soil biodiversity, reduces soil organic matter and reduces soil filtering capacity. It also contaminates water in soil and groundwater, leading to nutrient imbalances in the soil. In low-lying vegetable growing areas of Jammu city including Bishnah, Marh, Bhalwal, etc., the contaminated water directly reaches the farmer’s field and the harmful chemicals accumulate in the soil, absorbed by plants and eventually reach the human body, causing deadly diseases. Heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and emerging contaminants – such as pharmaceuticals and personal care items – are among the most common soil pollutants. Pollutants in soil, groundwater and the food supply can cause a wide range of human illness and death, ranging from short-term acute effects like intoxication or diarrhea to long-term chronic consequences like the cancer.
Management: The population of Jammu city is increasing and at its current rate of growth the city will be a megacity by 2047. Majority of the city’s inhabitants resort to waste incineration and off-site disposal. illegal site, resulting in unsanitary conditions and disease outbreaks. vectors. Solid waste is frequently deposited in open lots and on street corners. Although Jammu Municipal Corporation (JMC) plays a very important and crucial role in solid waste management and has taken several initiatives such as anti polythene campaign, clean campaign etc. but we as citizens , must have certain responsibilities to properly dispose of waste and keep our environment clean. The solid waste management plant is a step in the right direction. It will play a very important role in clearing the waste generated by Jammu. The following practices should be followed for proper waste management in Jammu city:
* Sanitation personnel and other personnel involved in garbage collection should be equipped with scientific and high-quality clothing, equipment and equipment for their protection
* Biodegradable and non-biodegradable products are separated and disposed of separately, but there are still areas where there is no separation, especially on the outskirts of the city.
* Collection of waste from slums, illegal settlements and commercial places (fish market, slaughterhouse) should be carried out regularly
*Vehicles used for waste collection must be well maintained and have a waste cover.
* Check or even prohibit the landfilling of non-biodegradable, toxic and other potentially hazardous waste. If the waste cannot be treated, landfilling of mixed waste should be avoided. Collection from medical institutes, hospitals and private hospitals and clinics should be carried out with the utmost care.
* In cement factories and power plants, non-recyclable waste can be used as refused derived fuel (RDF).
* Bio-treatment is one of the methods/technologies that can be used to recover waste and reduce pressure on landfills. Composting and vermicomposting are examples of waste treatment processes that have proven to be beneficial for agricultural activities. MSW with a high organic component have the potential to be converted into electricity or composted.
* Bioremediation proves to be an effective and novel method for the treatment of a wide range of toxins, and it is a useful toolkit for environmental protection. Currently, bioremediation is used to reduce toxins in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment, as well as air. In 2019, the Indore Municipal Corporation became the first city in India to use bioremediation to clean up around 15 lakh tonnes of historic waste from landfills.
* Wastewater must be properly treated and effluent must be disposed of before being discharged into water bodies.
CONCLUSION: Solid waste poses a risk to human health if not properly managed. Solid waste can come into contact with living organisms due to uptake, absorption, ventilation, leaching and soil biofactors, causing problems such as cancer, low birth weight , neurological diseases, nausea, vomiting and long-term irritation in daily life. . In India, the increase in population is a major contributor to the increase in solid waste. The growth of megacities in India coupled with the globalization of economy, culture and technology has compounded the problem of waste disposal. As a citizen, we need to understand the causes of pollution in order to develop and execute solutions. It is up to us to safeguard and preserve the environment. The government has launched many projects and programs like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to combat these problems, but without our cooperation, results cannot be achieved. Similar measures should be taken in all UT J&K districts and cities. The Indian government has launched many good solid waste management plans and programs in cities and towns. We should take full advantage of these schemes and programs, as the quote “Health is Wealth” says:
(The authors are from SKUAST-Jammu)